Looking Back: Temporal and Spatial Connections of Post-War Migration and Displacement Through the Eyes of the Toronto TelegramMain MenuLooking Back: Temporal and Spatial Connections of Post-War Migration and Displacement Through the Eyes of the Toronto TelegramBy Robyn LeLacheurTimeline of Publishing Patterns of Global Displacement between 1939-1964Photographs provided by the Toronto TelegramRefugees & Displaced Peoples: Where they came fromRefugees and MigrantsLocal Context: War Guests in TorontoTheir War Goes On: Opulence Hides Gray RefugeesArticle by Ron Poulton, Telegram Staff ReporterImage Representation of Refugees: An Analysis of Terence Wright's Article, "Moving Images: The Media Representation of Refugees"War Guests, (Im)migrants, and RefugeesThe Representation of War Guests, (Im)migrants, and Refugees Through Wartime Propaganda and IconographyAnna St.Onge25b2131b3bad72f47d55b2ab29f71ad3b83a7de6Robyn LeLacheur69764b2f71565fb3dfb6990b7c0672e799d40562
12018-04-07T19:52:54-04:00Robyn LeLacheur69764b2f71565fb3dfb6990b7c0672e799d40562Robin Kingsley Spending the Duration of the War on Farm north of Maple, ONRobyn LeLacheur9"Many miles across the ocean from the dangers of hun bombs, young Robin Kingsley, son of Capt. Charles Kingsley, R.A.F., and Mrs. Kingsley, is shown here on the edge of the swimming pool on the farm of Mr. and Mrs. Grant Glassco, just north of Maple. On the diving board are Dick and June Glassco, who will be his companions "for the duration," as Robin will make his home with the Glasscos." (Caption on back)plain2018-04-22T11:56:16-04:0007/06/194043.851648, -79.527211Robyn LeLacheur69764b2f71565fb3dfb6990b7c0672e799d40562
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12018-04-07T19:52:54-04:00Robyn LeLacheur69764b2f71565fb3dfb6990b7c0672e799d40562Robin Kingsley Spending the Duration of the War on Farm north of Maple, ON8"Many miles across the ocean from the dangers of hun bombs, young Robin Kingsley, son of Capt. Charles Kingsley, R.A.F., and Mrs. Kingsley, is shown here on the edge of the swimming pool on the farm of Mr. and Mrs. Grant Glassco, just north of Maple. On the diving board are Dick and June Glassco, who will be his companions "for the duration," as Robin will make his home with the Glasscos." (Caption on back)plain2018-04-15T12:04:49-04:0007/06/194043.851648, -79.527211Robyn LeLacheur69764b2f71565fb3dfb6990b7c0672e799d40562
12018-05-04T14:29:19-04:00Image Representation of Refugees: An Analysis of Terence Wright's Article, "Moving Images: The Media Representation of Refugees"23plain2018-05-08T16:18:29-04:00The selection of material for this digital archive, much like any archive, is subjective to what the presenter would like to show. The collection in which I was given to select photographs was already heavily influenced and biased by those working at the Toronto Telegram. In 2002, Terence Wright wrote the article, “Moving Images: The Media Representation of Refugees,” which discussed the stereotype and iconography of ‘the refugee’ through image representation and its perpetuation in the media (i.e., photographs, news reports, and to an extent, documentary films). Wright contends that refugee images are embedded in Christian iconography (p. 54); meant to elicit an emotional and moral response from the public. Images of ‘the refugee’ hold a social purpose and “act as a way of coping with a social ‘problem’” (p. 56). Wright asserts that the roots in Christian iconography establish the “iconography of predicament” (p. 64), and outlines four distinct categories of typical refugee photographs rooted in Christian iconography (p. 57):
“The Fall of the Man” – based on the story of Adam and Eve, the refugee is seen as degraded, isolated, the picture of poverty, and expelled from their homeland.
“Flight into Egypt” – the story of Mary and Joseph looking for a place to stay, the refugee is “displaced but necessarily destitute”, has possessions and a means of transportation.
“Exodus” – Exodus is typically referred to the story of Moses traveling across the Red Sea with the Israelites to be free from Egyptian-forced slavery, the refugees are part of a mass expulsion of people, and it is inferred through the image that this group is being pursued.
“Madonna and Child” – the picture of Mary and Baby Jesus, which has also “attained a broad secular appeal” (p. 59), this image is a woman photographed with children, and can be combined with any of the above categories.
Perhaps it was the time this article was published, where the images of refugees that saturated the media were of starving African villages, the Rwandan Genocide, the Yugoslav Wars, and the Chechen Wars, because only a few of the images from this digital collection reflect any of the criteria Wright puts forward. “Flight of Man” is a category that can somewhat characterize photographs in this collection, however, this category does not describe the plight of the refugee, but the modern-day (im)migrants looking to improve their living conditions. The Exodus is the only category I can accurately place a few of these photos, however, the Exodus category is hardly acknowledged, and Wright does not offer further elaboration, which is the category that compares most to the 2015 Syrian Refugee Crisis. And, any similarities I could find to "Madonna and Child" do not look as though they portray the stereotypical refugee or individuals that have had their lives uprooted.
Although an interesting read that holds valid criticisms of Western media in its attempt to dilute reality into a specific depiction of suffering, Wright’s argument of refugee images and media portrayal as represented through Christian iconography is narrow and temporally inapplicable. Images of children smiling upon their arrivals and departures in Toronto does not indicate the same, if any, form of suffering expected to be seen from the typical refugee. Furthermore, the categories in which he typecasts refugee images are not strictly limited to Christian iconography, but in studying global religions, it can be seen that poverty and expulsion lie within, Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism.
Wright, Terence. "Moving Images: The Media Representation of Refugees." Visual Studies 17, no. 1 (2002): 53-66.
Seen above is the timeline of the photographs from this collection, plotted based on their dates of publication. Although, there were photographs that were either published more than once, and another where the publication date was unknown but it could be determined when the photograph was taken based on the newspaper being read and knowing the publication date of the photograph used on the front page.
The timeline shows a pattern in the Telegram's publishing. A great interest in the War Guests in Toronto is indicated by the large number of photographs published during WWII, and then a lull until the mid-1950s when the Toronto Telegram photographed a series of Toronto's Red Cross initiatives, and then again in the early 1960s when immigrants and migrants began relocating to Canada.